Oceanography and Marine Geology in India

Sridhar D Iyer


The oceans and seas have always captivated us with their wide range of valuable natural resources and diverse marine life. Our ancestors were awestruck by their varying moods, such as tidal variations, waves, currents, sand transport, mixing with fresh river waters, and more. The curiosity about oceans led to various explorations to understand more about them and the weather. By measuring the depth of shallow seas and recognising the nature of the sea bottom, navigators avoided getting stranded and found anchorage sites and fishing grounds.

The study of oceans has been referred to by various names, such as “maritime science,” “maritime geography,” “marine science,” “physical geography of the sea,” “tidology,” “oceanology,” and “thalassography”. However, the term “oceanography” gained popularity as a broad field with four major branches — Biology, Geology, Chemistry, and Physics, focussing on different aspects of the oceans. Additionally, allied fields include Marine Instrumentation, Satellite Oceanography, Ocean Engineering, Marine Archaeology, Maritime Education, Ocean Policy and…read more on NOPR